5 Interesting Facts About Arthritis and Pets

Most of us are familiar with the term “arthritis.” Chances are, you know someone who suffers from this painful joint disease. But, did you know our pets can develop this condition, too? Arthritis, which refers to pain and inflammation of one or more joints, affects pets worldwide—approximately 15 million dogs in the United States alone head to their veterinarian each year because of signs of joint pain, lameness, and stiffness. Here’s what you need to know about this debilitating condition, and how your furry friend may be affected.

#1: Pets don’t typically develop the same type of arthritis as people 

When we think about arthritis in people, most of us think of rheumatoid arthritis, an autoimmune condition in which the body attacks its own joints. While this condition, known as immune-mediated polyarthritis in dogs, does occur, a different arthritis type is far more common in dogs and cats. Osteoarthritis occurs when the joint structures gradually degenerate, leading to cartilage loss, thickened joint capsules, and new bone formation (i.e., bone spurs). This combination of events eventually leads to clinical signs in our pets.

#2: Arthritis pain in pets isn’t always obvious 

Osteoarthritis is a highly inflammatory, painful disease. But, thanks to their stoic nature, dogs and cats aren’t always apt to show they are in pain, likely because of an instinctive mechanism that originally protected them from wild predators. While this may have been beneficial before dogs and cats became domesticated, masking pain only makes it harder for their owners to help them. Keeping an eye out for subtle discomfort indicators is essential for pet owners, as once obvious signs like limping are present, pain has often become severe.

Pets who are suffering from arthritic pain may pace, take a long time to find a comfortable position, be hesitant to rise or use stairs, and may have appetite changes. You’ll notice they are less willing to jump into vehicles, and they walk more slowly. Cats may lose interest in climbing, or finding high spaces. Posturing for urination or defecation may become difficult, and you may notice a decrease in hind limb musculature (i.e., atrophy). Your Harbor Pines Veterinary Clinic veterinarian is skilled in picking up subtle pain signs in pets, so ensure you always bring in your pet for their annual or semi-annual examinations. 

#3: Arthritis doesn’t occur only in older pets

While osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease that generally worsens with age, wear, and tear, pets as young as a year old can develop joint inflammation—usually because of an underlying orthopedic condition. A 2013 U.K. study found that dogs between 3 and 6 years of age were 400 percent more likely to receive an arthritis diagnosis than those between 1 and 3 years old. Though this correlates with an increased likelihood of developing arthritis with age, learning that dogs as young as 3 are already at-risk was a shock. Knowing your pet’s risk factors are key in monitoring for arthritis signs, and beginning preventive measures early is best. Talk to the veterinary team at Harbor Pines Veterinary Clinic to discuss your pet’s risk factors, and to see if they require a special diet or supplement as part of a preventive regimen. 

#4: Some pets are more prone than others to arthritis

Most pets suffering from arthritis have an underlying orthopedic condition that predisposes them to degenerative joint disease. According to the American College of Veterinary Surgeons, common ailments in dogs that contribute to arthritis include cranial cruciate disease, which  equates to the anterior cruciate ligament in people, hip and elbow dysplasia, and knee cap dislocation. A smaller percentage of pets develop osteoarthritis simply because of age and/or a genetic predisposition. Perpetuating factors for arthritis development in pets include obesity, gender, diet, and exercise habits. In many pets, a combination of factors contribute to morbidity. 

#5: Arthritis cannot be reversed, but many treatment options are available

Osteoarthritis cannot be cured because of its degenerative nature. Fortunately, because of veterinary advancements, pets can be kept comfortable while disease progression is slowed. Anti-inflammatory drugs are an osteoarthritis treatment mainstay, and newer options make these medications safer and more tolerable. A healthy diet and regular exercise are fundamental for keeping joints supple and in good shape. Certain supplements, such as glucosamine, chondroitin, and fish oil, may protect cartilage, and other disease-modifying agents may aid in joint support. Chiropractic care, acupuncture, physical rehabilitation, and cold laser therapy are other alternative options for arthritis pet patients. Talk to our veterinary team about the therapies best for your pet. 

At Harbor Pines Veterinary Clinic, we know arthritis, and we know pets. Contact us today to get answers to your arthritis questions, or to set up a consultation for your pet. We want to help your arthritic pet.

How to Prevent Your Pet From Thanksgiving Day Disasters

The most anticipated feast of the year is drawing near, and while your pet’s mouth may be watering as they watch you whip up a delicious meal in the kitchen, many holiday dangers can unexpectedly cause your furry pal harm. The kitchen is actually one of the most dangerous places in your home for your pet during Thanksgiving, but many other areas also hide health risks. Check out our room-by-room guide that details all the dangers your pet may be exposed to this Thanksgiving season.

Kitchen catastrophes for your pet

The kitchen is where it’s at—the aromas, the dropped ingredients, and the dangers. When you’re in the midst of cooking a holiday feast with your pet underfoot, a food-related incident is highly likely. Trying to dodge your furry pal as you chop carrots, boil potatoes, or remove the turkey from the oven can lead to knife, hot water, or scorching pan injuries.

In addition to the physical dangers of cooking are the hazards associated with eating toxic foods, many of which appear at Thanksgiving, posing all sorts of health risks to your pet. Here are some of the most common food dangers to avoid:

  • Turkey and ham — Whether you choose to grace your table with turkey, ham, or both, these main dishes can cause serious trouble for your pet. While a small bite of skinless, boneless turkey breast that’s seasonings-free is a safe treat for your four-legged friend, the rest should be off-limits. Fatty meats, like ham and turkey legs, can trigger pancreatitis in your pet, while bones can pierce their gastrointestinal tract, or cause an obstruction.
  • Garlic, onions, leeks, and chives — These veggies are popular for adding rich flavor to dishes, but Allium family foods can cause red blood cell damage and anemia in your pet.
  • Raisins and currants — Only small amounts of raisins and currants in stuffing, fruitcake, or other dishes can cause kidney failure in pets.
  • High-fat foods — Dishes loaded with butter, cream, or other high-fat ingredients can irritate and inflame your pet’s pancreas, potentially causing a life-threatening pancreatitis episode.
  • Desserts — Chocolate, massive quantities of sugar, or the sugar substitute xylitol can be hazardous to your pet’s health. Chocolate is a well-known toxin, while xylitol is rapidly becoming more common as a replacement for sugar in sweet treats. Xylitol ingestion can cause a drastic drop in blood sugar, and liver failure.

Dining room dangers for your pet

Once all the delicious dishes are moved from the kitchen to the dining room, the same hazards remain, but new ones are added. The main problem in the dining room is the beautiful centerpiece of seasonal flora. Squash, corn cobs, and candles may make a gorgeous design, but they may also attract your pet. Your squash that sits too long and becomes spoiled can cause serious gastrointestinal upset, while corn cobs can become lodged and require emergency surgical removal in pets, if ingested. Inquisitive pets may singe their whiskers on a lit candle, or knock the candle over, and create a house fire. 

Bedroom perils for your pet

If you have friends or family staying for the holiday, ensure your pet stays out of the guest bedroom. Your visitors may be unaccustomed to living with a pet, and fail to keep hazards out of reach. Remind your guests to refrain from leaving suitcases unzipped, medications in paws’ reach, or candy and gum in jackets and purses. Your curious pet may help themselves to potentially dangerous items as they explore your guest’s belongings.

Living room risks for your pet

As family and friends gather to share in the season of togetherness, all the strange visitors can cause your pet stress and anxiety. Feeling trapped in a room full of unfamiliar people can cause the most mellow of pets to lash out when cornered and approached for petting. If your pet displays stress signals, remove them from the festivities, and give them space to relax away from the commotion. Pets who are uncomfortable around strangers may hide behind their owners, pull back or flatten their ears back, tuck their tail, and widen their eyes, and may urinate or defecate. If your dog has a furrowed brow and a tense, closed mouth, or you see the whites of their eyes, instruct your guests to back off. An uncomfortable cat will arch their back, flatten their ears, stiffen their tail, or tuck themselves into a small ball. If you’re unsure how your pet will react around newcomers, be safe, and confine them to a quiet room with a soft bed, new toy, and tasty treat to occupy their time.

We wish you and your pet a happy, safe Thanksgiving. But, if a Thanksgiving Day disaster befalls your furry pal, contact our Harbor Pines Veterinary Center team for help. We’ll point you in the right direction should your pet need emergency care over the holiday.

Halloween Dangers and Your Pet: Scary Situations to Avoid

As Halloween approaches, you may think your party animal of a pet would enjoy all the hustle and bustle associated with this spooky holiday. However, many pets find Halloween celebrations stressful and scary. Protective dogs and shy cats may not appreciate the constant line of trick-or-treaters ringing your doorbell, disrupting their quiet environment. And, what pooch in their right mind would want to do their business in the yard next to a shrieking ghost?

View Halloween from your pet’s perspective, and don’t let your furry pal find themselves in a scary situation. Follow our tips to keep your pet out of mischief this spooky season, so they can receive plenty of treats for not playing any tricks. 

Be wary of yard decorations spooking your pet

That afore-mentioned ghost can really startle your pet, along with various other yard decorations that moan, howl, yell, and pop out of hiding places. You may also find that keeping your cool is tough, as you and your pup take a relaxing stroll around your neighborhood. In addition to the yard decorations’ scare factor, these animated monsters often have electrical cords running willy-nilly across the lawn. Your pet will be in for a shocking surprise, along with electrical burns, if they choose to investigate these “snakes” in the grass, so ensure all power cords are kept out of reach. 

Jack-o’-lanterns are another popular yard decoration that can be hazardous. Lit candles can singe your pet’s fur, battery-powered lights are toxic if ingested, and that rotting pumpkin that may still be sitting on the front porch at Christmas can cause a serious gastrointestinal upset.

Keep all the candy to yourself

Keeping the candy all to yourself should be an easy safety tip to follow, but pets are sneaky about snatching forbidden treats. Dangerous toxins can lurk in your candy bowl, so keep the following treats out of your pet’s paws:

  • Chocolate — This well-known toxin is still one of the most common problems for pets, especially with all the chocolate goodies available during Halloween. While a small milk chocolate candy bar likely won’t cause your pooch any harm, larger quantities can cause vomiting, diarrhea, hyperactivity, and a racing heart rate.
  • Sugar-free candies and gum — Xylitol replaces sugar in these sweets, and, while a healthier option, xylitol can cause a drastic drop in a pet’s blood pressure, lead to liver failure, and can be fatal for dogs.
  • Raisins — Boxes of raisins are a popular Halloween treat, but when ingested, your pet can suffer from inexplicable kidney failure. Not all pets will experience kidney dysfunction, and the number of raisins that will cause toxicity is not known.
  • Wrappers — While not toxic, candy wrappers and bags can pose a choking hazard, or create a gastrointestinal obstruction.

Watch out for home decor disasters

Be aware of which decorations pose threats. Some hazards are obvious, like lit candles and corn cobs hanging off that harvest display. Other potentially dangerous decorations include rubber eyeballs and body parts (i.e., choking risks), glow sticks and fake blood (i.e., possible toxins), and synthetic cobwebs (i.e., choking risks, or risks for entangling pets and wildlife). Instead of allowing your pet to rampage through your Halloween decor and possibly be harmed, block their access to unsafe items, and create pet-friendly decor specifically for their pleasure. Build a cardboard box haunted house for your cat, or create trick-or-treating fun for your pet with small treats and toys placed in a paper bag.

Chuck the too-tight pet costume

Although nothing is more adorable than a pet in a giggle-inducing costume—like a Chihuahua in a taco suit—most pets don’t appreciate costumes other than their birthday suit. If you choose to dress up your pet, ensure the size is appropriate, and nothing is too tight, especially around the neck and legs. Avoid dangling pieces or parts, such as buttons, ribbons, and ties, that can easily be chewed off. 

For your own costume, keep in mind that your pet may not recognize you, and become frightened, especially if you wear a mask or hood. Show your pet that the creepy creature is really you by allowing them to sniff the mask beforehand, and then putting on the mask in front of them, to help them make the association. 

Don’t let your pet stay out too late

While supervising your pet when they’re outdoors is always important, it’s especially critical on Halloween. Walk your pet before night falls, and bring them in from the backyard before it gets too late. If your pet is left alone in the yard, they may become frightened of the costumed people walking around, and search for ways to escape your yard. 

In case your pet should escape—whether through the front door while you’re handing out candy, or under the fence—ensure beforehand they are wearing tags with current identification, and that their microchip is registered with up-to-date information. Proper ID will help you reunite with your lost pet if they disappear into the night.  

If your pet gets into any tricks this Halloween, our Harbor Pines Veterinary Center team is here to help. Give us a call if your furry pal raids the candy bowl, eats your jack-o’-lantern, or needs a microchip inserted before October 31.

Dazed and Confused: What You Need to Know About Cognitive Dysfunction in Your Pet

As your four-legged friend ages, you may notice they are losing their sharpness. Perhaps they’re going to the pantry door to be let outside, or they’ve forgotten where you’ve placed the food dish. These signs can be associated with cognitive dysfunction, a common condition in senior and geriatric pets. 

What is cognitive dysfunction in pets?

Cognitive decline is not considered a normal aging change for pets, although its occurrence does increase with advanced age. As your pet ages, their brain undergoes changes that can be seen as differences in awareness, deficits in learning and memory, and decreased responsiveness to stimuli. Although the initial signs are mild, they increase over time as cognitive function continues to decline.

What are cognitive dysfunction signs in pets?

Cognitive dysfunction is often chalked up to normal aging changes in pets, but it’s a true disease that can be diagnosed and treated. When determining if your pet has cognitive dysfunction, look for the following signs that fall under the acronym DISHAA:

  • Disorientation — Disorientation and confusion are commonly seen in pets with cognitive dysfunction, similar to that seen with people with Alzheimer’s disease. Rather than forgetting where they left their keys, your pet may get lost in familiar areas, not recognize familiar people, or go to the wrong side of the door when going outside.
  • Interactions — The interactions you see between your pets may change, as may the interactions between you and your senior pet. Some pets may become more clingy and never leave your side, while others may lose interest in interacting. Your senior pet may also become irritable when approached or petted.
  • Sleep-wake cycle changes — Owners of pets with cognitive dysfunction often complain that their pet is up pacing all night long after sleeping all day. Sleep-wake cycles can flip flop, causing your pet to display irregular sleep patterns.
  • House soiling — Inappropriate elimination is another key indicator that your pet may be experiencing decreased cognitive function. Dogs may forget to signal they need to go outside, while cats may eliminate in random spots throughout the house.
  • Activity levels — Pets can become more restless and be unable to settle. They may also wander aimlessly, or develop repetitive behaviors, such as licking.
  • Anxiety — Normally relaxed pets may suddenly develop anxiety, and anxious pets may pace, pant, whine, and become more clingy than usual.

Since there is no one particular test that pinpoints cognitive dysfunction in pets, a diagnosis is made by excluding other potential causes that cause the same signs.

How can I help my pet’s cognitive dysfunction at home?

Maintaining a healthy and stimulating environment is the best way to help slow cognitive decline in your furry pal. Accomplish this management method through a daily routine of interactive play, exercise, and training. Try the following activities to help support your pet’s cognitive function:

  • Obedience training — Brush up on your pet’s known skills, like sit, down, and stay, while incorporating new ones to encourage them to think. 
  • Sport training — Put those obedience skills to work by playing new sports, such as treibball, agility, or flyball.
  • Food puzzles — Ditch your pet’s food dish and make them work for their meals by putting their canned or dry food in a food puzzle. Try putting your pet’s favorites, like peanut butter, spray cheese, yogurt, fresh veggies, and dry kibble, in a rubber Kong that you freeze overnight. Then, let your furry pal work out how to get to their meal.
  • Scent work — Cats and dogs have exceptionally sensitive noses, and their sense of smell is phenomenal. Let your pet use their sense of smell to sniff out strong-smelling treats you’ve hidden throughout your home.
  • Interactive play — While a stuffed toy or a ball can be fun for your pet, you can crank up their enjoyment from their toys by playing with them. Interactive toys and games, like feather wands and hide and seek, are best for enticing your pet to play, and for helping strengthen cognitive function. 

How can my veterinarian help my pet’s cognitive dysfunction?

Although cognitive dysfunction has no magic cure, medications, supplements, and diets are available to help boost your pet’s brain power. Medications can be used to combat your senior pet’s anxiety, or to act as a neuroprotective agent, while supplements can perform the same actions, but often to a lesser extent. Diets, whether prescription or over-the-counter, can protect against, and reverse damage caused by free radicals. These diets are also loaded with essential fatty acids, to help improve learning ability and memory. A combination of therapy options often provides the best support for your four-legged friend’s cognitive function.

Does your pet seem confused and disoriented? Are they urinating in your home, after years of no accidents? If so, your pet may be suffering from cognitive dysfunction. Contact our Harbor Pines Veterinary Center team to schedule an appointment.

Feline Viral Infections: The Dangerous Triple Threat

Feline companions are special, and cat owners enjoy their purring pal’s playful, independent, and curious nature. Some pet owners mistakenly think that a cat is easier to care for than their canine counterpart. However, providing your feline companion with clean litter boxes, proper nutrition, plenty of toy mice, and regular veterinary care is critical, to ensure they thrive into their grey whisker years. 

Additionally, your cat may spend hours gazing out the window, wishing they could explore the great outdoors, and finally catch the pesky backyard squirrel. However, keeping your cat indoors is a critical component of responsible cat ownership, because outdoor cats have an increased risk of contracting dangerous infectious diseases. Our Harbor Pines Veterinary Center team wants to ensure your feline friends remain healthy through all life stages, and we describe three common cat viral infections, the signs, treatment, and prevention. 

#1: Feline infectious peritonitis in cats

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is one of the most common infectious causes of death in young cats, and occurs from a mutation in certain enteric feline coronavirus (FeCV) strains. More than 50 percent of cats are FeCV carriers, and approximately 10 percent of those cats have the FIP-causing mutation, which attacks their white blood cells. Young cats, immunocompromised cats, cats who are housed in crowded catteries, and cats who are stressed, are most at risk for developing an FIP infection. Specifically, FeCV is spread by contact with an infected cat’s feces, and is not contagious to humans or other species. Additionally, cats who develop FIP may have a genetic disease predilection, and they are not considered contagious to other cats. 

  • FIP signs Signs are variable, and may include fever, lethargy, decreased appetite, yellowing of the skin, difficulty breathing, sneezing, and a pot-bellied appearance.
  • FIP treatment — No cure or treatment is available for an FIP infection, and most cats will succumb to the disease. However, supportive veterinary care can increase their quality of life.  
  • FIP prevention Although no FIP vaccination exists, ensuring your cat receives all recommended core vaccinations to prevent common cat diseases, which can make them more susceptible to an FIP infection, can help prevent disease. Bring your cat for yearly, or more frequent, veterinary visits, to check for underlying health problems, and ensure they are receiving proper nutritional support and parasite prevention. 

#2: Feline leukemia virus in cats

Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a widespread, highly contagious retrovirus that causes more cat deaths than any other organism, and is a leading cause of lymphoma cancer. More than 85 percent of cats will succumb to the disease after diagnosis, which is made through a blood test. In some cases, cats who are exposed to FeLV can resist the virus and clear the infection. False-positive tests may occur, so our Harbor Pines veterinarian may recommend several FeLV tests for your new kitten, to ensure they are negative for the disease. FeLV is most commonly spread through mutual grooming or fighting, although the virus can also be transmitted through an infected cat’s bodily fluids, including urine and feces.

  • FeLV signs — Persistently FeLV-positive cats may not show disease signs for several years. Signs are variable, and may include pale gums, enlarged lymph nodes, inflammation of the gums and mouth, lethargy, gastrointestinal problems, neurologic disorders, and respiratory problems.
  • FeLV treatment — No treatment or cure is available for an FeLV-infected cat. However supportive care, including fluid therapy or immunotherapy medications, may decrease disease signs, and improve overall quality of life. 
  • FeLV prevention FeLV is preventable in cats with a vaccination series, if they have not been previously exposed. The American Association of Feline Practitioners recommends that most kittens receive two vaccinations, plus a booster at 12 months of age. Additionally, avoid bringing an unvaccinated cat, a cat who has not been FeLV-tested, or an FeLV-negative cat, into a home with an FeLV-positive cat, to prevent disease spread.  

#3: Feline immunodeficiency virus in cats

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), which is also referred to as feline AIDS, is a highly contagious cat retrovirus, similar to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Like HIV, FIV is a species-specific virus that attacks the immune system, increasing the cat’s chances of contracting secondary infections that can lead to severe illness. FIV-positive cats may live long disease-free lives with regular preventive care, but they can still spread the virus. Although any cat can become infected, FIV is most commonly diagnosed in outdoor, unneutered, male cats who have increased exposure to bite wounds. 

  • FIV signs — Illness severity is variable, and signs may not occur for years after an FIV diagnosis. Signs may include lethargy, conjunctivitis, inflammation of the mouth and gums, weight loss, and fever. 
  • FIV treatment — An FIV infection has no treatment or cure. Cats who show signs should receive regular veterinary supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, to prevent dehydration.
  • FIV prevention — Keeping your cat indoors, and avoiding contact with cats who have not been FIV tested, will vastly reduce your cat’s chances of contracting an FIV infection. Scheduling yearly, or more frequent, preventive care examinations will help ensure your cat remains healthy, and decrease their chances of secondary infections or illness. 

Call our Harbor Pines Veterinary Center office if you have any questions about these feline viral infections, or to schedule your cat for their preventive care examination, to help ensure they are protected and disease-free.

Barbecue Safety for Shy and Sociable Pets

You have one pet who never meets a stranger and one who hides under the couch when you have company. You want to ensure they are both prepared for your upcoming barbecue. Our team at Harbor Pines Veterinary Center wants to help, so we are checking in on two pets whose owner is hosting an outdoor gathering, to get their thoughts on the subject.

Davey the dachshund:

“Our humans have been busy all day. They barely had time to walk me, and I noticed they left the gate open when they brought in the groceries. Maybe I will go visit my buddy down the street while they are distracted.”

Sheila the Siamese:

“I really do not like all the commotion. If Davey is leaving, I may go too, and find a quieter place to hide out until our humans calm down.”

Harbor Pines Veterinary Center (HPVC): When planning a gathering, your attention tends to be focused on preparations as opposed to your pets. Whether they take the opportunity to escape through an open door or gate, or they feel frightened because they do not like the upheaval, they can easily become lost if they run away. Ensure your pets are wearing a collar and accurate identification. The veterinary professionals at Harbor Pines Veterinary Center will be happy to come to your home to implant a microchip, which is the best, permanent method to find your pet should they go missing.

Davey:

“So many people have come to see me! I am so excited! I love meeting new people, smelling all the smells, and getting all the pets!”

Sheila:

“Who are these people, and why are they in my house? This is horrible, and I am feeling stressed and upset. I may go pee in my owner’s shoes to let them know how I feel.”

HPVC: Some pets experience stress and anxiety when around people they do not know. If your pet is shy and tends to hide when you have company, they will likely be more comfortable sequestered in a room away from the party before the festivities begin. Leave the television playing to mask any loud noises that may scare them. You can also leave a food puzzle toy to help distract them from the commotion.

Davey:

“Yummy looking food is everywhere. I think I can convince a few partygoers to slip me a tasty morsel when my owner is not looking.”

Sheila:

“I do not want to go near the guests, but I think I will see what I can find in the garbage. People usually throw away leftover treats at parties like this.”

HPVC: You may be tempted to give your pet food from your plate, but this practice can result in gastrointestinal upset for your four-legged companion. Cooked bones are especially problematic for pets because they can fracture easily, and injure your pet’s esophagus or intestine. Inform your guests that they are not to give your pet any food. If your pet goes scavenging, they may ingest a foreign body, such as plastic wrap or corn on the cob, that would cause an intestinal blockage. Ensure all food and garbage is in sealed containers, inaccessible to your pet. Certain common foods, such as chocolate, avocados, alcohol, and onions, are toxic for your pet. If your pet ingests toxic food, call us, or Animal Poison Control immediately. 

Davey:

“I have been so excited about the party that I did not realize how hot I am. I need to take a break in the shade for a little while.”

Sheila:

“I am hot, too, and our humans have been so distracted by the party that they forgot to refill our water bowls. This is not acceptable, and I am going to sharpen my claws on their new couch to express my disdain.”

HPVC: Pets are highly susceptible to heatstroke, since they cannot sweat like humans, and dehydrated pets are more at risk. Signs include lethargy, excessive panting and drooling, vomiting, diarrhea, seizures, and collapse. If your pet shows heatstroke signs, take them to a cool area, and wet their coat with cool water. They will need to be seen by a veterinary professional as soon as possible.

Davey:

“I was having fun, but now bright lights and loud noises are everywhere. I do not know what is happening, and I am so scared!”

Sheila:

“I am terrified, and I will probably have to live the remainder of my life under the bed. My heart is beating a mile a minute, and I may never recover from this horrifying experience.”

HPVC: Many pets find fireworks frightening, and some pets develop noise phobias in response to the displays. The extreme stress and anxiety can cause physiologic effects, such as increased heart rate, blood pressure, and circulating cortisol levels. These conditions are not good for your pet’s emotional or physical health. When possible, avoid fireworks encounters for your pet. If this is not possible, and your pet displays extreme stress during the displays, consider noise aversion therapy to help your pet cope with their fear.

Davey and Sheila are glad the party is over. By following their cues, your pets can stay safe and stress-free at your outdoor gathering. However, if your pet encounters a problem during the festivities, do not hesitate to contact our team at Harbor Pines Veterinary Center to schedule an appointment. We want your pet to be not only safe, but also stress free.

You Need Your Medicine! Advice For Giving Oral Medications To Your Pet

At the conclusion of your pet’s appointment, the veterinary technician reviews your pet’s prescription and hands you the bottle. She asks if you have any questions.

“Well, only one,” you admit, sheepishly. “How am I going to get my dog to take this?”

If you struggle to give oral medication to your pet, you are not alone. So, Harbor Pines Veterinary Center is here to provide some inside knowledge on helping your pet acceptor at least toleratepills, tablets, and liquid medication.

Keep calm and prepare to medicate your pet

If you were at the hospital, and a nurse rushed into your room without knocking, dropped her supplies, grabbed your arm, bent it awkwardly, tried to draw blood without taking the cap off, and then spilled the vials, you’d be anxious, right? Does she know what she’s doing? 

Our pets may feel the same way. If you are nervous about a process, your pet will know. Plan ahead, have all your supplies ready, and stay calm and neutral. You want your pet to believe what you are doing is no big deal.

Change your pet’s picture

Dogs and cats build strong associations with context, and will inappropriately attach their emotions about an event to a location, person, or object, whether or not they are related. So, let’s start afresh:

  • Location If you previously medicated your pet in the kitchen, try another room. 
  • Position Instead of standing, sit down. Leaning over a pet can be threatening. For small pets, put them on a bed or chair that is safe.
  • Procedure Before you begin the medication procedure, reward your pet for simply being with you. That will relax you, too!
  • General care You can use the same location for basic husbandry, such as ear cleaning, teethbrushing, or grooming.

Smells suspicious to your pet

After you have prepared your pet’s medication, wash your hands, because the medication smell can offend cats and dogs. Don’t lose the game before you’ve started, so keep track of what you touch, and wash your hands. Use the following sandwich medicating methods.

Pills and tablets for pets

Like a sandwich, you can surround your pet’s medication experience with so many good things that they do not have time for skepticism. Bookend the medication with high value rewards, using good things, one tiny bad thing, more good things, as the basic pattern. 

  • The wrap Use an irresistible treat that can be molded to wrap the pill or tablet, taking care not to use too much, because that will encourage your pet to chew. We suggest:
    • Peanut butter, with a little flour added for easier molding
    • Cream cheese, also with flour added
    • Ready-to-use pill-hiding treats, available in most stores
    • Canned food

Do not use any food that has been used previously as the “good thing.” If your pet has dietary restrictions, talk to your veterinarian.

  • Placebo Make about six more identically sized treats, which will be your placebos.
  • Sandwich Feed your pet two to three treats quickly, followed by the medication treat, and then quickly feed two to three more regular treats. 
  • Final treat The last treat should always be visible and ready as your pet eats the last part of the sandwich. Now is not the time for savoring.
  • The ending Finish with petting, praise, or toy play. 

Liquid medication for pets

Ask your veterinarian for some oral syringes, and follow the same pattern for tablets. Most pets quickly learn to accept syringes if they contain something yummy. 

  • Dogs For dogs, let them sample the syringe contents by offering a little from your hand, or letting them lick the end. If your dog is comfortable, place the syringe in their cheek pocket and slowly empty the contents.
  • Cats Do the same for cats, but you will need to gently hold your cat by the head and upper jaw to introduce the syringe. Remember to go slowly.
  • Treats Draw up your pet’s exact dose and mix the medication with some thin yogurt, or a slurry of canned food and water. 
  • The sandwich Most pets learn to accept tasty treats from syringes. Once your pet is happily feeding from the treat syringes, feed them from the medication syringe, followed by one or two treat syringes.

Don’t be afraid to ask for help medicating

Unfortunately, some pets have a complex history of fear and anxiety that makes safe medication a risk. If your pet has previously reacted violently to being medicated by vocalizing, struggling, scratching, biting, eliminating, or expressing their anal glands, and you have exhausted your options, please call us at Harbor Pines Veterinary Clinic. We will discuss your pet’s behavior, suggest alternatives, or modify the treatment.

Never discipline your dog or cat for their reaction, because they are responding out of fear and confusion. Punishment may escalate the situation, causing the pet to scratch, lunge, or bite, and is never justified. 

Harbor Pines Veterinary Center knows that caring for a sick pet is incredibly stressful. When your pet hurts, you hurt. When we prescribe medication for your pet, we want you to administer the medicine confidently. If you have more questions, or need to schedule an appointment, give us a call.

Mosquitoes and Ticks: How They Can Ruin Your Pet’s Summer

Picture an idyllic scene. You and your furry pal are frolicking down the trail winding through your local park, enjoying a gorgeous sunshine-filled day. As you meander down the path, your dog tugs at their leash to explore a thick patch of brush, and you follow close behind. As you walk through this brushy area into the heart of the park, your pooch is in heaven, sniffing out all the various wildlife trails. Later, as the sun begins to lower, out comes a swarm of blood-seeking mosquitoes that chases you and your dog, and you head for home, slapping at the pests as fast as you can. However, you know you and your pet, whose short fur offers little protection, have multiple mosquito bites. By the time you are safely home, you have numerous welts caused by the mosquitoes, and, worse, you feel a tickling sensation crawling up your leg and discover a tick.

Unfortunately for you, no parasite preventive can tackle heartworms, fleas, and ticks in people, but many prevention products are available for your furry pal—and, fortunately for your pet, you administered their preventive this morning before heading out on your walk, so you know they are protected from various parasitic diseases.

Without parasite prevention, your pet could have been exposed to the following common diseases.

Heartworm disease in pets

Heartworms prefer to set up shop in dogs and wild canines, although these parasitic worms can infect any mammal. However, if your dog had been unprotected during your walk, those mosquito bites could have caused more damage than itchy skin—they could have transmitted heartworm larvae. After an infected mosquito bites, heartworm larvae travel throughout your pet’s bloodstream to reach the large blood vessels surrounding the heart and lungs. In about six months, they reach adulthood and begin reproducing. However immature heartworms can also cause serious damage to your pet’s health. Dogs with heartworm disease generally cough, and the dry, hacking cough worsens with disease progression, as does their exercise intolerance and fatigue. In late heartworm disease stages, dogs can develop congestive heart failure and a distended, fluid-filled abdomen. Treatment is difficult for dogs, who must be kept exercise-restricted for 8 to 12 weeks while undergoing multiple injections administered deep into their lumbar muscles. 

In cats, asthma-like signs are the most common, so you may notice coughing, wheezing, or difficulty breathing. In some cases, vomiting, seizures, difficulty walking, and sudden collapse or death are possibilities. Cats have no approved heartworm treatment, which makes year-round prevention more critical. 

Lyme disease in pets

Although Lyme disease is not as common in California as along the East Coast, you could have been bitten by that black-legged tick that was crawling up your leg, and contracted Lyme disease. Fortunately, you pulled the tick off before it had a chance to attach and begin disease transmission. However, a black-legged tick that bit your pet would need to remain attached for 48 hours to transmit the Lyme bacterium, so proper prevention and a thorough tick check after being outdoors can protect your furry pal from this tick-borne illness.

If your pet contracts Lyme disease, you may notice the following signs:

  • Shifting leg lameness
  • Fever
  • Inappetence
  • Lethargy
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Tender, painful joints

Unlike people, pets rarely develop the classic bulls-eye lesion seen with Lyme disease—if they do, it’s well-hidden under their fur. In rare cases, pets can also develop kidney disease, which requires lifelong management.

Anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in pets

Ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are two similar tick-borne illnesses that can be transmitted by brown dog, lone star, and black-legged ticks. Pets with ehrlichiosis can cycle through acute, subclinical, and chronic phases if left untreated, causing a range of illness signs, including:

  • Fever
  • Lethargy
  • Poor appetite
  • Lymph node enlargement
  • Abnormal bruising and bleeding
  • Chronic eye inflammation
  • Neurologic abnormalities

Anaplasmosis can cause most of the same signs, especially abnormal bruising and bleeding, as this disease attacks the body’s platelets and affects clotting. Both these tick-borne illnesses are typically treated with a 30-day antibiotic course, with good results, and no lasting effects.

Don’t leave your pet unprotected against the threat of parasites. Contact our Harbor Pines Veterinary Center team, who can recommend the best parasite prevention options to keep your furry pal safe from disease.

Is My Dog the Only One? Odd Dog Behaviors Unraveled

There’s no question about it—dogs do some weird stuff. Whether they’re rolling on the ground to cover themselves in horrible smells, or chowing down on grass outside, dogs have some odd behaviors. The real questions—why do dogs do what they do, and is there a reason behind the behavior? To clear up any confusion, our Harbor Pines Veterinary Center team discusses your canine companion’s unusual antics, and explains some reasons for your pup’s weird behavior.

Question: Why does my dog eat grass?

Answer: Dogs don’t have bovine ancestors in their family tree, so why do they seem to love munching on grass? Some dogs may eat large quantities of grass to purge their bodies, using the high fiber content to push out intestinal parasites or spoiled food. Many dogs become nauseous and may vomit after eating grass, so they may instinctively eat grass if they feel the need to vomit. However, in most cases, dogs who eat grass simply like the taste or texture, especially grass that’s freshly covered in morning dew. But, if your dog routinely vomits after eating grass, schedule a physical exam with our team to ensure nothing more serious is occurring.

Q: Why does my dog scoot along the carpet?

A: Typically, dogs don’t need to wipe after going to the bathroom, so why does your dog occasionally drag their hind end along your carpet? This scooting behavior has more to do with alleviating the uncomfortable pressure of overly full anal glands than any other reason. The anal glands are two small sacs right inside your pet’s anus that fill with a thin, foul-smelling fluid. Normally, this stinky fluid is naturally expressed when your pet defecates, but if your dog has diarrhea, inflammatory skin issues, or another medical condition, the glands may not empty on their own. As fluid builds up, so does pressure, which causes your pet to lick, chew, or scoot. If the glands are not emptied, your dog can suffer from an anal-gland infection, impaction, or abscess, so contact our team if you notice your pet scooting.

Q: Why does my dog kick the ground after going to the bathroom?

A: You may think your pooch is wiping off their feet after going to the bathroom, or covering up the evidence like a cat, but they’re more likely spreading their scent. Not only do feces and urine contain a great deal of pheromones and scent markers, but also your dog’s paw pads. By kicking up the grass or dirt after eliminating, your dog is marking their territory in an impressive way.

Q: Why does my dog hump other dogs, people, or things?

A: While humping by intact dogs can be tied to reproductive purposes, most pets are spayed or neutered. After reproductive urges are eliminated as a potential reason, the typical cause for your dog’s humping, whether another dog, a person’s leg, or a favorite stuffed toy, is overexcitement. When your dog becomes over-stimulated through play or new experiences, they may not know how to act, and turn to humping as an outlet for their excess energy. This behavior is generally benign, but can cause altercations between dogs, and can become a serious issue if your large-breed dog knocks down children or the elderly. When your dog becomes overly agitated, ask them to perform a series of tricks, like sit, down, and shake, to help them focus on you and redirect their energy.

Q: Why does my dog eat feces?

A: Dogs are gross. Scooping “tootsie rolls” from the litter box may be a highlight of their day, but dogs will also eat their own feces. Most commonly, this feces-eating behavior, or coprophagia, is chalked up to your pet’s palate, meaning they simply like the taste. In some cases, coprophagia can be spurred by a nutritional deficiency or unclean living conditions.

Q: Why does my dog like to roll in dead and other foul-smelling things?

A: Again, dogs are gross. They enjoy all manner of disgusting things, like rolling in dead animals or other nasty smells. Your dog may seek out the same smelly spot to roll in on their daily walk, effectively covering up their own scent. This masking technique may be vital for stalking prey, but such behavior is now outdated and unnecessary for domesticated dogs.

Your dog’s unusual behavior may actually be a cry for help. If your furry pal is exhibiting odd behavior, they may require veterinary attention for a medical condition. Contact our Harbor Pines Veterinary Center team for an appointment.

5 Common Pet Emergencies that Require Immediate Veterinary Care

Our four-legged companions are family, and fill our lives with wet noses, cozy cuddles, and adventure. Regular preventive veterinary care, proper nutrition, exercise, and bonding time are essential aspects of caring for a pet. However, the curious and sometimes mischievous nature of pets may lead to an unexpected emergency veterinary visit, and being prepared will ensure you are ready to make decisions if your pet is injured or suddenly becomes sick. Our Harbor Pines Veterinary Center team wants to ensure you can recognize the clinical signs of a veterinary emergency, before your furry friend gets into trouble and needs immediate care. We describe five of the most common pet emergencies and signs; however, never hesitate to contact us immediately if you are worried about your furry pal, whether or not your concern is included below.

#1: Medication ingestion in pets

According to the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center (APCC), more than 40% of calls in 2019 were attributed to medication poisoning. Many common over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription human medications, including ibuprofen, acetaminophen, and anti-anxiety and blood pressure medications, are dangerous to pets, who cannot metabolize these drugs the same way as humans. Ensure all medications are out of paws’ reach, and keep bags or purses zipped. Medication toxicity signs may not be immediately obvious, but never hesitate to seek immediate veterinary care if you suspect your pet has ingested human medication. In some cases, you may be advised to induce vomiting in your pet, but you must do this only under your veterinarian’s direction. 

#2: Dangerous human food ingestion by pets

Some human foods, like baby carrots, are perfectly safe for most pets; however, always avoid sharing your plate with your pet to prevent them from ingesting a toxic or too-rich food. Many people foods are the culprits for veterinary emergencies, including chocolate, raisins, grapes, sugar-free treats, macadamia nuts, onions, garlic, chives, and leeks. Additionally, some toxic foods can cause kidney failure, hypothermia, or life-threatening anemia in pets, who metabolize differently than humans. Pets are also sensitive to rich, fatty foods, which can cause gastrointestinal (GI) distress and inflammation, including pancreatitis. Pancreatitis is a potentially deadly inflammatory condition that can cause vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, and dehydration.

#3: Trauma and bleeding in pets

Pets who take an unplanned outdoor adventure, or cats who think they can fly from the third story window, are at risk of being hit by a car or breaking bones. Additionally, pets who are hit by a car are often in shock and may not immediately limp or show trauma signs. Bring your pet to our hospital for immediate care if they experience any trauma, or have any of the following signs:

  • Vocalizing or biting when touched
  • Bleeding that doesn’t stop after five minutes
  • Puncture wounds from another animal, whether or not they are swollen or bleeding
  • Exposed bone, tissue, or muscles
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Inability to stand or walk normally
  • Swelling of the abdomen
  • Bleeding from any orifice, or when urinating or defecating
  • Difficult or labored breathing
  • Pale, blue, or bright red gums

#3: Allergic reactions in pets

Like humans, pets can be allergic to foreign substances or proteins, and are at risk for severe or anaphylactic reactions. Insect stings, chemicals, or certain grasses commonly cause pet allergic reactions. Vaccine reactions are rare, but can occur. During your preventive care visits, ensure you let your veterinarian know if your pet has previously had a vaccine reaction. Vaccines are vital to protect your pet from dangerous, sometimes deadly, infections. Medications are available to prevent vaccine reactions or treat an allergic reaction, whose signs include:

  • Rectal temperature higher than 102.5 degrees
  • Hives
  • Swelling of the face or muzzle
  • Lethargy
  • Extreme itching
  • Excessive drooling
  • Vomiting or diarrhea
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Decreased appetite

#4: Retching and bloating in pets

Large-breed and deep-chested dogs are most at risk for bloat or life-threatening gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV). which can occur following a large meal that was quickly ingested. Dogs with GDV will attempt to vomit, or retch, without producing any vomitus. If your pet appears nauseous or has a distended abdomen, take them for immediate veterinary care. Nauseous pets will often drool excessively and appear to be smiling. Other causes for vomiting, retching, or nausea that require emergency care include:

  • Liver, kidney, or other disease causing sepsis
  • GI blockage 
  • Toxin ingestion

#5: Straining in pets

Pets who vocalize while attempting to urinate or defecate may be experiencing a urinary blockage or constipation. These conditions are extremely painful for pets, and dogs and cats will posture as if they need to eliminate, without any result. Male cats are most at risk for urinary blockages, which can lead to kidney failure and death without treatment. 

Our Harbor Pines Veterinary Center team hopes your pet never requires emergency care, but if you notice any sudden signs or are ever concerned about your pet’s health, call our office, or bring them to the closest emergency veterinary hospital if it’s after hours.

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